Teatro Olympia: A Family-Run Venue Entering a New Century



In 1915 Europe was immersed in the First World War. Alfonso XIII was the young King of Spain. Mexico was in the throes of a revolution that would put Pancho Villa in power for a few months. The Armenian genocide was beginning. In that year as well, Einstein presented his theory of relativity, the planet Pluto was photographed for the first time, the World’s Fair took place in San Francisco, Kafka published The Metamorphosis, Manuel de Falla composed El amor brujo, Juan Ramón Jiménez, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature, wrote Platero y yo and Federico García Lorca wrote Impresiones y Paisajes after journeying around northern Spain. The Spanish city of Valencia was in a state of upheaval, with strikes and terrorist attacks as a consequence of the wars in Europe and wars with Morocco. With an agricultural past but a population of more than 200,000, the city began to take on a modernist aspect as a result of its 1909 Regional Exhibition. The period saw the construction of a series of buildings that are now emblematic of Valencia: City Hall, the Central Market, the Post Office and Telegraph Building, the Estación del Norte train station and the Mercado de Colón food market. This period also saw the founding of many societies and cultural institutions, influenced in part by the Spanish literary and cultural movement known as the Generation of ’98. They include the Symphony Orchestra of Valencia, the Prometeo publishing company founded by the Valencian author Vicente Blasco Ibañez, the agriculture chair at Universitat de València and the Royal Academy of Valencian Culture. The Olympia theatre opened its doors for the first time on 10 November 1915. It was designed by the architect Vicente Rodríguez Martin and built on the site of the Convent of Saint Gregory. The building was commissioned by Manuel Galindo, a businessman who drew his inspiration from other European cities and grand edifices. His reasons for building the Olympia seem to have been economic (property development) and artistic (demand for performing arts) in nature, although Galindo never managed the venue himself. The theatre was striking because of its sloping stalls, innovative lighting and modern bar on the lower level. These features made it comparable to some of the world’s most prestigious theatres, including the Gran Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona built several decades earlier, also by the private sector (Poisson-de Haro 2008). Teatro Olympia opened with the Rossini opera The Barber of Seville, staged by an Italian company and directed by the famous baritone Riccardo Stracciari. The first impresarios for the venue, who were also responsible for management, committed to a performing arts program that included major figures such as the Spanish actors María Guerrero, Enrique Borrás, Catalina Bárcenas, and Enrique Rambal and internationally renowned musicians such as the pianist Arthur Rubenstein. The theatre was closed upon the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. After the war, the premises served as a cinema for more than 50 years, screening many foreign films several years after their initial release Teatro Olympia: A Family-Run Venue Entering a New Century Manuel Cuadrado-García Company Profile Manuel Cuadrado-García is an associate professor of Marketing at the University of Valencia, Spain. His main research interest is arts marketing (music, performing arts, cinema and exhibitions) from both a consumer and a managerial perspective. He is engaged in master’s and PhD programs in cultural management at different universities and collaborates with arts organizations. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTS MANAGEMENT 72 (not unusual at the time). Then, in 1984, it again became a venue for the performing arts, with a varied program and some of its own productions enjoying great box office success. To celebrate its recent centennial, the theatre offered a special program of activities designed to thank its audience for their loyalty and at the same time attract and consolidate new audiences. The Venue The Olympia’s survival over the years, as pointed out by its current manager, has been linked to various crises. After years as a performing arts venue, it was transformed into a cinema by virtue of the Spanish Civil War. The consolidation of television in Spanish households during the 1970s, the emergence of video and the broadening of entertainment choices in the 1980s, increased per capita income, and rising ticket prices led to a reduction in cinema attendance and cinema closures (Ministerio de Cultura 1993). In 1965 (the first year that such records were kept), 405 million tickets were sold, contrasting with 89 million in 1989. In just two decades, box office sales dropped more than 75%. During the same period the number of screens was cut by over 50% (Cuadrado and Frasquet 1999). Consumption in other cultural sectors was also affected. Given this dire situation, the second generation of the family that owned Teatro Olympia chose to change the model and return the venue to its vocation as a live theatre, offering a diverse program of performing arts. Years later, in the late 2000s, the financial crisis brought significant reductions in public subsidies. In addition, the management of public theatres was put out to tender because the government bodies to which they were attached were unable to run them efficiently. Olympiametropolitana is a private management firm whose flagship is the Olympia. It operates four other theatres, one in the city itself and three just outside the city. In addition, it collaborates with theatres in Madrid and Barcelona as well as producing and co-producing shows. The firm also operates a cinema that screens reruns. Olympiametropolitana features a classic organizational structure, with 10 management employees. Two of these work in programming and production, four in administration and four in marketing, where the main activities are communication and public relations. A further nine employees work at the Olympia, as technicians and as theatre, bar and cleaning staff. Teatro Olympia is one of the most popular performing arts venues in Valencia. With its 17 enclosed stage areas, both public and private, and with a continuous program, it is one of the theatres most cited by Valencia’s performing arts consumers, according to a study conducted by Universitat de València (González 2013). The Program Comedy, drama, classical theatre, musical theatre, children’s theatre, dance, ballet, opera, zarzuela, magic shows and variety shows are the main genres on the program. Works are aimed at different audiences under a strategy of segmentation developed by the institution over the years, as described by Cuadrado and Mollà (2000), though intuitively. For the 2015–16 season, 76% of productions were by national or, to a lesser extent, international companies and 24% were produced and performed by local ABSTRACT Teatro Olympia in the Spanish city of Valencia is 100 years old. The theatre was established early in the 20th century during a time of war, labour unrest and famine in a city with a strong agricultural tradition. It represented a look to the future. The Olympia’s initial focus was the performing arts, but later it served as a cinema for more than 50 years, becoming a theatre once again in the 1980s. Being family owned and run, the theatre has been able to provide varied programming aimed at a wide variety of audiences and has been able to survive despite the ever-present difficulties encountered in the performing arts sector. The centenary celebrations, consisting of a diverse program of activities throughout the year, had the threefold aim of thanking Teatro Olympia’s audiences for their loyalty, raising the venue’s profile and attracting younger people to the theatre. It signalled the launching of a new communication strategy aimed at consolidating Teatro Olympia’s audiences and continuing to offer theatre for years to come. KEYWORDS Theatre, marketing, communication strategy, audience consolidation, targeting the youth VOLUME 19, NUMBER 3 • SPRING 2017 73 companies. Table 1 summarizes the 10 different types of performance offered. Stand-up comedy represents 21% of the total, followed by dramatic theatre, comedic theatre and concerts, with dance and children’s theatre close behind. Well down the list is musical theatre, followed by magic shows, opera and other types of performance. Hundreds of works have been performed at this theatre. In an in-depth interview, the manager was asked to choose the 10 most significant productions from the start of the Olympia’s most recent vocation as a theatre and his reasons for making these choices. At the top of his list was La chica del asiento de atrás, a light comedy starring the well-known Spanish actor Arturo Fernández, because it was the very first play on the program. Cinco horas con Mario, by Miguel Delibes and starring the grand dame of Spanish theatre, Lola Herrera, made an impact because of its heart-rending tale while also managing to fill the theatre with young people in the latter half of the 1980s. The manager also cited the resounding success of the comedy show Exit, which brought the Catalan company Tricicle to public attention and eventual international renown. Another highly successful play was Mujer de negro, a work by a small Valencian production company that received widespread attention in other Spanish cities. On his list as well was the play Urtain, with Roberto Álamo, because of its marvellous script. The manager also mentioned XXX by the internationally known theatrical company La Fura dels Baus. This is a work that brought scandal to the city. Rejected by many theatres, the play broke new ground both theatrically and socially. The musical Hello, Dolly!, performed by a cast of 50 led by Concha Velasco, toured for two years after its Olympia run. La cena de los idiotas, an adaptation of the French play Le dîner de cons, starred the well-known comedian Josema Yuste (and was later performed by Valencian actors in the native language of the region). Besos, a production of the Valencian company Albena Teatre, sold out on New Year’s Eve, filling all of the Olympia’s 900 seats. Finally, the manager cited the variety show La Corte del Faraón starring Norma Duval and Joan Monleón and directed by Rafa Calatayud. This box office hit was recorded for Spanish television. The foregoing summary illustrates the wide variety of the Olympia’s productions as well as its role in co-producing shows and, above all, promoting them and thus helping many to achieve renown. The theatre engages in other projects as well, including the Educandos a escena program, which brings the performing arts (mainly theatre, comedy and dance) to secondary school pupils. A series of top-quality plays are programmed in both Spanish and the Valencian language featuring important figures in Spanish literature, transversality in education and the playful aspect RÉSUMÉ Le Teatro Olympia, situé dans la ville espagnole de Valence, a aujourd’hui 100 ans. Ce théâtre a été fondé au début du 20e siècle, alors que la guerre, les conflits de travail et la famine sévissaient, dans une ville à forte tradition agricole. Il représentait alors une façon de se tourner vers l’avenir. À ses débuts, l’Olympia s’est surtout concentré sur les arts de la scène. Il a par la suite servi de salle de cinéma pendant plus de 50 ans avant de redevenir un théâtre dans les années 1980. En tant qu’entreprise familiale, cet établissement a été en mesure d’offrir une programmation variée destinée à un vaste éventail d’auditoires et a survécu, en dépit des difficultés que doit sans cesse surmonter le secteur des arts de la scène. Le programme des célébrations du 100e anniversaire propose une grande variété d’activités tout au long de l’année. Son objectif est triple : remercier les différents publics du Teatro Olympia pour leur fidélité; rehausser le profil de la salle; et attirer les jeunes au théâtre. Ce programme marque le lancement d’une nouvelle stratégie de communication, qui vise à fidéliser davantage les publics du Teatro Olympia et à continuer de leur présenter du théâtre pour de nombreuses années encore. MOTS CLÉS Théâtre, marketing, stratégie de communication, fidélisation des publics, cibler les jeunes publics TABLE 1 WORKS (2015–16), BY TYPE 2016 Frequency % Stand-up 9 21 Dramas 6 14 Comedies 5 12 Concerts 5 12 Dance 4 10 Children’s theatre 4 10 Musicals 3 7 Magic 2 5 Opera 2 5 Other 2 5 Total 42 100 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTS MANAGEMENT 74 of the performing arts. In short, the aim is to bring culture into the pupils’ daily lives. The Audience The performing arts sector is going through hard times, reflected in such parameters as the number of plays programmed, attendance figures and revenues, not only in the Valencia region and its capital city but in the country as a whole. Teatro Olympia continues to be one of the country’s most successful private theatres. For Spain and Valencia (Table 2), the number of productions has fallen in recent years, by 26.1% and 36.1%, respectively. Attendance figures for Spain have also seen a relative drop (19.5%), whereas in the Valencia region the numbers are up (by 11.7%). Finally, although revenue has fallen, it has done so more moderately. Performing arts revenues have decreased by 12.5% in Spain and by 13.5% in the Valencia region. Audiences at Teatro Olympia, in line with the profile of performing arts audiences in general, according to an exploratory study (Gonzalez 2013), comprise mainly women (72.5%) with an average age of 50 (only 14% are under age 35), are university educated (slightly over 50% of attendees) and are partnered (67%). Most are employed (44%). Although the type of production attended is related to the audience’s education level, few university students are theatregoers. Frequency of attendance is between three and five times a year (33.5%), mainly during the week (47%). Some began attending when they were young (32.5%), preferring comedy shows, musicals and drama. On their visits to the theatre they are accompanied mainly by their partner (42.5%) or friends (23%). Since the study was conducted, people’s use of new communication platforms such as social networks has increased. The following data would possibly be affected by this change. Nevertheless, Olympia audiences choose traditional media to find out about shows, mainly RESUMEN El teatro Olympia de la ciudad de Valencia (España) ha cumplido 100 años. Nacido a principios del siglo XX en un momento convulso de guerras, huelgas y hambre en una ciudad de tradición agrícola, supuso una mirada al futuro. Con una potente programación escénica inicial pero siendo después sala de cine durante más de cincuenta años, se recuperó de nuevo para la escena en la década de los ochenta. Su propiedad y gestión familiar ha permitido que una programación diversa y generalista, dirigida a un publico amplio y variado, haya sobrevivido todo este tiempo pese a las dificultades que siempre atraviesa el sector de las artes escénicas. La celebración de su centenario, con un plural programa de actividades durante un año, se realizó con el triple objetivo de agradecer al público su fidelidad, conseguir mayor notoriedad y atraer al público más joven, actualmente alejado de las salas. Este programa ha sido el inicio de la implementación de una nueva estrategia de comunicación que persigue consolidar la audiencia para continuar programando teatro por muchos años más. PALABRAS CLAVE Teatro, marketing, estrategia de comunicación, consolidación de públicos, captación de espectadores jóvenes TABLE 2 NUMBER OF THEATRES AND PRODUCTIONS, ATTENDANCE AND REVENUES 2010–15 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Spain Venues 6.413 5.153 4.112 4.201 4.486 4.396 Productions 67.635 61.168 54.780 52.197 50.980 49.948 Attendance 16,860,083 14,862,697 13,406,189 12,852,809 13,687,477 13,571,837 Revenue (€) 252,748,619 226,887,828 208,021,897 200,772,375 211,521,267 221,125,117 Valencia region Productions 5.559 3.864 3.295 3.478 3.558 3.553 Attendance 1,343,639 1,519,423 1,269,366 1,311,671 1,508,359 1,501,727 Revenue (€) 10,950,576 10,403,327 8,527,857 8,819,966 8,260,064 9,475,502 Source: SGAE (2016) VOLUME 19, NUMBER 3 • SPRING 2017 75 print media (43%), as well as family and acquaintances (33.5%) and the theatre’s Web site (33.5%). Only a few (8.5%) mention social networks. However, the figures change when the audience is broken down into age groups. The youngest members prefer to use the Internet to find out about shows, whereas older members tend to use traditional media and posters. Yet ticket purchase online (43%) is similar to that at the box office (45.5%) and most tickets are purchased more than a week in advance. The main motivations for attending events at the Olympia are to be entertained and to see certain actors. Going to the theatre is perceived as a social practice. Thus reviews and other information about a production have little impact on the decision to attend. However, they are more relevant at higher education levels. For people at lower education levels, personal recommenda – tions are more influential. Finally, the youngest theatregoers attach more importance to the sub – ject matter of the production. Lack of affordability and lack of time are the main reasons given for not attending. For the youngest interviewees, lack of time, not knowing the program and living far away are the main barriers to attending. For the intermediate age groups, having children or responsibility for family members are obstacles. Having a partner or children increases the barriers of lack of time and responsibility for family members, whereas those with no partner or children point to lack of affordability. In addition, Olympia audiences attach importance to the services offered. The services receiving the highest rating on a scale of 1 to 5 are box office (4.41), followed by the varied program (4.35), customer care (4.35) and other services of an experiential nature. The least valued aspect is the comfort of the seats, but even that scores 3.72. The overall score for the theatre is 7.9 out of 10, with most scores falling between 7 and 9. The Communication Strategy Teatro Olympia has been conducting intense communication campaigns for years using different methods such as advertising, personal selling, sales promotions and public relations schemes. In the case of advertising, both trad – itional and digital media have been employed. Use of traditional media includes press conferences to announce each production. These take place in the lobby of the theatre the day before the show opens. Media releases and television interviews are also frequent forms of communication. The decision about the most appropriate type of pub – licity for a production is made by the actors or the company, often based on the success of the pro – duction in other cities. Another promotional tool is leaflets or flyers announcing a particular produc – tion or season. Finally, external advertising by means of banners, notices in underground stations and phone boxes, posters, CCTV in city buses and advertising on the outside of buses is used in combination with other promotion methods. In the realm of digital media, the Olympia’s Web site has recently been redesigned by an external company. It has been made more attrac – tive and user-friendly, with different sliders and a simple contents menu. Managed by the theatre’s own communication team, the site is updated almost daily and has an average of some 90,000 hits per month. In addition, Teatro Olympia has an intense presence on social networks and holds exclusive ownership of the content. These networks include Facebook (21,000 fans), Twitter (8,200 followers), Instagram (1,100 followers) and YouTube. Facebook is the Olympia’s most popular social network. The theatre’s Facebook page was created in 2009 and now has monthly coverage of 270,000 individuals and 7,000 clicks. Although currently the Olympia’s social networks are managed externally, a community manager has been hired to take charge. The theatre also pays to advertise on social networks. To increase its impact in terms of public relations, Teatro Olympia sends out invitations for opening nights via e-mail and WhatsApp. Another communi – cation tool is a newsletter sent two or three times a month to more than 60,000 people, some of whom are enlisted via the Web site or during online purchase through the theatre’s own ticketing platform. The content of the newsletter is determined by the program and by box office information. If a particular play, for instance, is doing poorly at the box office, promotion becomes more intense, including the offer of discounted tickets. Finally, the Olympia purchases advertising space on other Web sites. Marketing Analysis and Strategies The above descriptions contain several noteworthy elements, most positive but some negative. These need to be serious considered so the theatre can take advantage of opportunities in a constantly changing environment. The ongoing cuts to public funding and the downward trend in audience numbers and revenues are major threats to be addressed. The theatre’s strengths, on the other hand, include the proven INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTS MANAGEMENT 76 expertise of Olympiametropolitana in managing several theatres, continuous collaboration with other arts organizations and cultural projects, openness to new technologies, eagerness to consolidate current audiences and attract new ones, excellent positioning as a performing arts venue, staging of a wide variety of productions (most of them box office successes), engagement in various other program-related projects, and high rating of services on the part of theatregoers. After years of programming mainly highquality shows and intense communication activities, the Olympia’s managers have become aware of the need for serious analysis in order to determine managerial issues to be addressed. In other words, they know the importance of understanding the marketplace in order to deliver superior value and build profitable relationships with customers. Teatro Olympia’s need to increase its market share by targeting new audiences has led the theatre to reconsider its management model, mainly in order to develop new marketing strategies, especially with regard to programming and communication. The idea is to include new shows to attract both younger and male audiences, because these are the groups found to be the least interested in theatre. The Olympia’s extensive database will be used to attract new audiences and build loyalty among existing ones. The theatre is eager to enhance peripheral services that add value to its offering, as suggested by the literature (see Davis and Swanson 2009; Hume 2008), such as by improving and updating both theatrical and external facilities. External facilities include car parks near the theatre and online ticketing services. These call for an intensifying of collaboration. The Olympia also aims to increase or extend its collaboration with other industries such as leisure, tourism and education. Furthermore, promotional decisions, although effective, have been taken on a short-term basis, often in isolation, and in an uncoordinated fashion. Managers have intuitively undertaken actions depending on the population segment being targeted by a particular production. That is why a communication policy is needed as part of a medium-term strategic approach (see Colbert and St-James 2014) targeting different segments. The reconsideration of not only the communication policy but also the programming strategy began with the celebration of the 100th anniversary of Teatro Olympia’s founding. Centenary Celebrations I n addition to being an opportunity for a year of joyous celebration, the 100th anniversary has achieved other objectives, in particular thanking the audience for its loyalty, capturing new audiences, and improving the theatre’s image and positioning, especially among young people. And all has been done with a view to the medium and long terms. The special program designed to commemorate the theatre’s first century included a variety of activities intended to appeal to different audiences. Audiovisual Presentations During the year’s centenary celebrations, three short audiovisual works were produced. Por el teatro, Lo mío es el teatro and Me encanta el teatro were performed on the Olympia’s stage by different groups of Spanish actors, filmed by Altheamedia and then shown in the theatre before the start of plays. Interviews In order to make the most of productions with actors of renown in Spain, interviews were held once a month. These interviews were made possible through the collaboration of local media and were open to the public free of charge. Audience members were invited to put their own questions to the actors. Performances Assorted cultural activities were held in the lobby of the theatre before the start of selected plays, to entertain the audience and promote other artistic events. These included graffiti by the urban artist Hyuro, an urban dance show (Valencia Dance Centre), a videomapping event (Nuria Cano) with live piano music (Pablo Casal) and a video installation titled Mirakel (Gary Amseian) highlighting the value of books. Virtual Photographs Theatregoers were given a chance to win two tickets by uploading a photograph taken at the anniversary “photo call” in the lobby to Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. A draw was held every week over the course of several months. Lecture Series Three talks were presented in collaboration with Spain’s General Society of Authors and Editors (Sociedad General de Autores y Editores – SGAE), Florida Universitaria and Universitat de València. The themes of the lectures were, VOLUME 19, NUMBER 3 • SPRING 2017 77 respectively, The Role of Women in the Theatre, Innovation and the Theatre Business, and The Search for New Audiences. Dramatic Reading In collaboration with the SGAE, a dramatic reading was held, paying homage to the Spanish playwright, scriptwriter and actor Ana Diosdado. 100-Year Card The notion of a 100-year card was put forward as yet another component of the centenary program. Such a card would have advantages for theatregoers and at the same time help to build audience loyalty, but the idea is still in the draft stage. Olympia: 100 Years Exhibition Teatro Olympia and the Vice-Rectorate of Culture and Equality at Universitat de València jointly sponsored an exhibition at La Nau cultural centre. This selection of photographs, posters, handbills, leaflets and other items depicted the future of a space that began as a theatre but has also been home to other art forms. The exhibition proved to be a very effective way of illustrating the Olympia’s history and its important role in developing the performing arts. Book of Stories In collaboration with Generación Bibliocafe, the theatre published a book, Entre bambalinas, 100 años del Teatro Olympia (Behind the Scenes: 100 Years of the Olympia Theatre). The book comprises 27 stories, 10 of which were chosen in a competition open to the public. The objective was to involve lovers of both literature and the performing arts, giving them an opportunity to become part of the theatre’s history. Closing Gala The anniversary celebrations ended with a gala at which the guests were invited to travel through time and, in particular, though Teatro Olympia’s history. The event was led by different Valencian actors and musicians and addressed different agents within the industry, Valencian society, government, academia, theatrical figures, various associations, and the general public. Entertainment was provided by six different shows, each related to a performing arts activity. The well received and reviewed gala was a nod to new languages – that is, to other types of programming and thus to new audiences. “The event was engaging and elegant,” said one attendee, “with the right measure of humour and nostalgia and of an appropriate duration. It was a successful combination of live music and dance, singing and theatre and visual perfection.” All of these activities made an impressive and sustained impact in the media, both traditional and digital. They achieved the objective of raising the profile of the theatre, while the participation of different branches of the arts established a connection between Teatro Olympia and various groups, especially young people. Conclusions The year-long celebration of Teatro Olympia’s centennial has served not only to thank its audience members for their loyalty but also to raise the theatre’s profile in the media and attract new attendees. The history and evolution of the Olympia is reflected in its audience. Valencians from many generations and backgrounds have filled its seats year after year, overcoming obstacles such as the emergence of other entertainment and leisure options like television, video, videogames and the Internet, to say nothing of recent financial and social upsets. Valencian audiences continue to flock to the Olympia even though theatregoing is a minority activity in the realm of cultural consumption: there are still many people who have never been to a play. Teatro Olympia seeks to continue capturing the hearts of audiences so they can learn from, relate to, be moved by and enjoy its productions. FIGURE 1 FLYER DEPICTING PROGRAM FOR TEATRO OLYMPIA’S CENTENARY GALA, WITH PHOTO FROM 100 YEARS AGO ON THE REVERSE SIDE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTS MANAGEMENT 78 In particular, it will continue to reach out to new audiences, bringing the performing arts to those who have never been to the theatre while also ensuring that current attendees repeat their theatregoing experience and become more involved. The current rethinking of the Olympia’s programming and communication strategies will no doubt help it to achieve this objective and ensure its sustainability over the next hundred years. References Colbert, F., and Y. St-James. 2014. Research in arts marketing: Evolution and future directions. Psychology and Marketing 31(8), 566-576. Cuadrado, M., and M. Frasquet. 1999. Segmentation of cinema audiences: An exploratory study applied to young consumers. Journal of Cultural Economics 23(4), 257-267. Cuadrado, M., and A. Mollà. 2000. Grouping performing arts consumers according to attendance goals. International Journal of Arts Management 2(3), 54-60. Davis, J.C., and S.R. Swanson. 2009. The importance of being earnest or committed: Attribute importance and consumer evaluations of the live arts experience. Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing 21(1), 56-79. González, I. 2013. Motivos y barreras de asistencia al teatro. Estudio de público del Teatro Olympia de Valencia. Unpublished master’s dissertation, University of Valencia. Hume, M. 2008. Developing a conceptual model for repurchase intention in the performing arts: The roles of emotion, core service and service delivery. International Journal of Arts Management 10(2), 40-55. Ministerio de Cultura. 1993. La Industria Cinematográfica en España (1980–1991). Madrid: Instituto de la Cinematografía y de las Artes Audiovisuales. Poisson-de Haro, S. 2008. Gran Teatre del Liceu: Rising from the ashes. International Journal of Arts Management 10(3), 72-83. Sociedad General de Autores y Editores. 2016. Anuario SGAE de las Artes Escénicas, Musicales y Audiovisuales 2016. Fundación SGAE. http://www.anuariossgae. com/home.html


Por favor, inicia sesión con uno de estos métodos para publicar tu comentario:

Logo de WordPress.com

Estás comentando usando tu cuenta de WordPress.com. Cerrar sesión / Cambiar )

Imagen de Twitter

Estás comentando usando tu cuenta de Twitter. Cerrar sesión / Cambiar )

Foto de Facebook

Estás comentando usando tu cuenta de Facebook. Cerrar sesión / Cambiar )

Google+ photo

Estás comentando usando tu cuenta de Google+. Cerrar sesión / Cambiar )

Conectando a %s